Tocotrienols

Tocotrienols (bixa orellana) are part of the Vitamin E family. Tocotrienols were originally discovered by Pennock and Whittle in 1964. In the early 1980s, Tocotrienols were shown to lower cholesterol. Shortly thereafter, during the 1990s, Tocotrienols started being investigated for their anti-carcinogenic properties. Since then, Tocotrienols have been studied extensively in numerous clinical trials and are proven to reduce blood cholesterol levels by 5–35 percent.

Tocopherols and Tocotrienols

The Vitamin E Family

Tocopherol (T)
5. Alpha-T
6. Beta-T
7. Gamma-T
8. Delta-T

Tocotrienols (T3)
1. Alpha-T3
2. Beta-T3
3. Gamma-T3
4. Delta-T3

Studies on Tocotrienols

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tocotrienol

Graveline, Duane. Tocotrienols in Combat: Fighting the Statin Damage Crisis. Whole Foods Magazine. Oct. 2011.

(http://www.wholefoodsmagazineonline.com/supplements/features/tocotrienols-combat-fighting-statin-damage-crisis.)

Tocotrienols and Heart Health

Pearce BC, Parker RA, Deason ME, Qureshi AA, Wright JJ (October 1992). "Hypocholesterolemic activity of synthetic and natural tocotrienols". J. Med. Chem. 35 (20): 3595–606. doi:10.1021/jm00098a002. PMID 1433170.

^ Tan DT, Khor HT, Low WH, Ali A, Gapor A (April 1991). "Effect of a palm-oil-vitamin E concentrate on the serum and lipoprotein lipids in humans". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 53 (4 Suppl): 1027S–1030S. PMID 2012011.

Pearce, B.C., et al., Hypocholesterolemic activity of synthetic and natural tocotrienols. Med Chem, 1992. 35(20): p. 3595-606.

Kooyenga, D.K., et al., Antioxidants modulate the course of carotid atherosclerosis: A four-year report., in Micronutrients and Health, K. Nesaretnam and L. Packer, Editors. 2001, AOCS Press: Illinois. p. 366-375.

Tan, B. and A.M. Mueller, Tocotrienols in Cardiometabolic Diseases., Tocotrienols: Vitamin E beyond Tocopherol, R. Watson and V. Preedy, Editors. 2008, AOCS/CRC Press. p. 257-273.

Naito, Y., et al., Tocotrienols reduce 25-hydroxycholesterol-induced monocyte-endothelial cell interaction by inhibiting the surface expression of adhesion molecules. Atherosclerosis, 2005. 180(1): p. 19-25.

Astazanthin

Fassett, R.G. and J.S. Coombes, Astaxanthin, oxidative stress, inflammation and cardiovascular disease. Future Cardiol, 2009. 5(4): p. 333-42. Tocotrienols and Cancer Cells

Shibata, A., et al., delta-Tocotrienol suppresses VEGF induced angiogenesis whereas alpha-tocopherol does not. J Agric Food Chem, 2009. 57(18): p. 8696-704.

Miyazawa, T., et al., Antiangiogenic and anticancer potential of unsaturated vitamin E (tocotrienol). J Nutr Biochem, 2009. 20(2): p. 79-86.

Tocotrienols and Radiation

Kulkarni, S., S. P. Ghosh, et al. "Gamma-tocotrienol protects hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in mice after total-body irradiation." Radiat Res 173(6): 738-47.

Ghosh, S. P., S. Kulkarni, et al. (2009). "Gamma-tocotrienol, a tocol antioxidant as a potent radioprotector." Int J Radiat Biol 85(7): 598-606.

Satyamitra, M. M., S. Kulkarni, et al. "Hematopoietic Recovery and Amelioration of Radiation-Induced Lethality by the Vitamin E Isoform delta-Tocotrienol." Radiat Res 175(6): 736-45.

Li, X. H., D. Fu, et al. "Delta-tocotrienol protects mouse and human hematopoietic progenitors from gamma-irradiation through extracellular signal-regulated kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin signaling." Haematologica 95(12): 1996-2004.